Publications which are dealing with heated electrodes and some of the observed effects:




Electrically Heated Electrodes: Practical Aspects and New Developments; Gerd-Uwe Flechsig, Anne Walter (2012) Electroanalysis 24, No. 1, 23 - 31, abstract: here

The Application of Heated Electrodes in Electrochemical Sensors; Chen Yiting, Huang Lu, Lin Qi, (2011) Progress in Chemistry Vol. 23, Issue (11) : 2377-2388,abstract 

Modern Thermoelectrochemistry, Peter Gruendler, Andreas Kirbs and Lothar Dunsch (2009) ChemPhysChem 10, 1722 - 1746, abstract: here

Principles and Analytical Applications of Heated Electrodes, Peter Gruendler and Gerd-Uwe Flechsig (2006) Microchim Acta 154, 175-189, abstract: here

High-Temperature Electrochemistry: A Review; Gregory G. Wildgoose, Debora Giovanelli, Nathan S. Lawrence, Richard G. Compton (2004) Electroanalysis 16, No. 6, abstract: here

Temperature Pulse Voltammetry

Hot-wire electrodes: Voltammetry above the boiling point; Gründler P, Kirbs A, Tadesse Zerihun (1996) Analyst 121:1805-1810, abstract: here

On modelling heat transfer in chemical micro sensors, Frischmuth K, Visocky P, Gründler P (1996) Int J Engng Sci 34:523-530, abstract: here

Gründler P, Voss T, Kirbs A (1998) GDCH-Monographien 14:123

Temperature pulse voltammetry: hot layer electrodes made by LTCC technology, Voss T, Gründler P, Kirbs A, Flechsig GU (1999) Electrochem Commun 1:383-388, abstract: here

Basics of temperature pulse voltammetry, Voss T, Kirbs A, Gründler P (2000) Fresenius J Anal Chem 367:320-323, abstract: here

Kirbs A (1999) "Temperatur-Puls-Voltammetrie", Thesis, Rostock University

Temperature calculation for pulse-heated hot-wire electrodes, Gründler P, Degenring D (2001) J Electroanal Chem 512:74-82, abstract: here

The limits of aqueous hot-wire electrochemistry: Near-critical and supercritical fluids in electrochemical sensors? Gründler P, Degenring D (2001) Electroanalysis 13:755-759, abstract: here

Heavy metal analysis

Electrically heated cylindrical microelectrodes. Determination of lead on Pt by cyclic voltammetry and cathodic stripping analysis
Tadesse Zerihun, Gründler P (1996) J Electroanal Chem 415:85-88,

Deposition and stripping at heated microelectrodes. Arsenic(V) at a gold electrode
Gründler P, Flechsig GU (1998) Electrochim Acta 23:3451-3458,

Hot-wire stripping potentiometric measurements of trace mercury
Wang J, Gründler P, Flechsig GU, Jasinski M, Lu J, Wang J, Zhao Zh, Tian B (1999) Anal Chim Acta 396:33-36,

Heated mercury film electrode for anodic stripping voltammetry 
Jasinski M, Kirbs A, Schmehl M, Gründler P (1999) Electrochem Commun 1:26-28,

Investigation of deposition and stripping phenomena at the heated gold wire electrode in comparison to the rotating disk electrode: Copper(II), mercury(II), and arsenic(III)
Flechsig GU, Korbut O, Gründler P (2001) Electroanalysis 13:786-788,

Anodic stripping voltammetry with a heated mercury film on a screen-printed carbon electrode
Jasinski M, Gründler P, Flechsig GU, Wang J (2001) Electroanalysis 13:34-36,

Electrically heated bismuth-film electrode for voltammetric stripping measurements of trace metals 
Flechsig GU, Korbut O, Hocevar SB, Thongngamdee S, Ogorevc B, Gründler P, Wang J (2002) Electroanalysis 14:192-196,

Gründler P (2005), Heat, radiation and mechanical energy as parameters in electrochemistry, Poster, 40th Baltic Conference on Electrochemistry, Greifswald, Germany, March 13-16

O. Aaboubi, A. Housni, Thermoelectrochemical study of silver electrodeposition from nitric and tartaric solutions, Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry 677-680 (2012) 63-68 ,

Hafez, U. Koch, G.-U. Flechsig, ToF-Secondary Ion Mass-spectrometric Study of Copper Deposition and Stripping on Directly Heated Screen-printed Gold Electrodes, J. Solid State
 17 (2013) 1563.

DNA analysis

Stripping analysis of nucleic acids at a heated carbon paste electrode
Wang J, Gründler P, Flechsig GU, Jasinski M, Rivas G, Sahlin E, Paz JLL (2000) Anal Chem 72:3752-56,
doi: 10.1021/ac000286q

Damage to DNA indicated by an electrically heated DNA-modified carbon paste electrode
Korbut O, Buckova M, Tarapcik P, Labuda J, Gründler P, (2001) J Electroanal Chem 506:143-148,

The influence of temperature on the interaction between DNA and metal complex at a heated gold-wire microelectrode
Wang J, Gründler P (2003) J Electroanal Chem 540:153-157,

Label-free DNA hybridization based on coupling of a heated carbon paste electrode with magnetic separations
Wang J, Flechsig GU, Erdem A, Korbut O, Gründler P (2004) Electroanalysis 16:928-931,
doi: 10.1002/elan.200302897

Association interaction and voltammetric determination of 1-aminopyrene and 1-hydroxypyrene at cyclodextrin and DNA based electrochemical sensors 
Ferancova A, Buckova M, Korgova E, Korbut O, Gründler P, Wärnmark I, Stepan R, Barek J, Zima J, Labuda J (2005) Bioelectrochemistry67:191-197,

DNA hybridization detection at heated electrodes
Flechsig GU, Peter J, Hartwich G, Wang J, Gründler P (2005) Langmuir 21:7848-7853,

Comparison of DNA hybridization at heated and rotating gold disk electrodes
J. Peter, Th. Reske, G.-U. Flechsig, Electroanalysis 19 (2007) 1356,

G.-U. Flechsig*, Th. Reske, Electrochemical Detection of DNA-Hybridization by Means of Osmium Tetroxide Complexes and Protective Oligonucleotides, Anal. Chem. 79 (2007) 2125, 
abstractfull text

Th. Reske, M. Mix, H. Bahl, G.-U. Flechsig*, Electrochemical detection of osmium tetroxide labeled PCR products by means of protective strands, Talanta 74 (2007) 393, invited research article.

H. Sopha, F. Wachholz, G.-U. Flechsig*, Cathodic stripping voltammetric determination of tRNA by labelling with osmium tetroxide, Electrochem. Commun. 10 (2008) 1614, 

H. Duwensee, M. Jacobsen, G.-U. Flechsig*, Electrochemical competitive hybridization assay for DNA detection using osmium tetroxide-labelled signalling strands, Analyst 134 (2009) 899,

T. Reske, A.-E. Surkus, H. Duwensee, G.-U. Flechsig*, Kinetics of the labelling reactions of thymine, cytosine and uracil with osmium tetroxide bipyridine, Microchimica Acta 166 (2009) 197,

H. Duwensee, M. Mix, I. Broer, G.-U. Flechsig*, Electrochemical detection of modified maize gene sequences by multiplexed labeling with osmium tetroxide bipyridine, Electrochem. Commun. 11 (2009) 1487,

H. Duwensee, M. Mix, M. Stubbe, J. Gimsa, M. Adler, G.-U. Flechsig*, Electrochemical Product Detection of an Asymmetric Convective Polymerase Chain Reaction, Biosens. Bioelectron. 25 (2009) 400,

T. Reske, A.-E. Surkus, H. Duwensee, G.-U. Flechsig*, Kinetics of the labelling reactions of thymine, cytosine and uracil with osmium tetroxide bipyridine, Microchimica Acta 166 (2009) 197,

T. Reske, A.-E. Surkus, H. Duwensee, G.-U. Flechsig*, Kinetics of the labelling reactions of thymine, cytosine and uracil with osmium tetroxide bipyridine, Microchimica Acta 166 (2009) 197,

M. Mix, T. Reske, H. Duwensee, G.-U. Flechsig*, Electrochemical detection of asymmetric PCR products by labeling with osmium tetroxide, Electroanalysis 21 (2009) 826,

Electrochemical detection of DNA melting curves by means of heated biosensors
A.-E. Surkus, G.-U. Flechsig, Electroanalysis 21 (2009) 1119,

K. Y. Chumbimuni-Torres, J. Wu, C. Clawson, M. Galik, A. Walter, G.-U. Flechsig, E. Bakker,* L. Zhang,* J. Wang*, Amplified potentiometric transduction of DNA hybridization using ion-loaded liposomes, Analyst 135 (2010) 1618,

 M. Jacobsen, G.-U. Flechsig*, Temperature Control in Electrochemical DNA Sensing, 
Current Physical Chemistry 1 (2011) 292, invited review article,

D. Kagan, S. Campuzano, S. Balasubramanian, F. Kuralay, G.-U. Flechsig, J. Wang*, Functionalized Micro machines for Selective and Rapid Isolation of Nucleic Acid Targets from Complex Samples, Nano Letters 11 (2011) 2083,

M. Mix, J. Rüger, S. Krüger, I. Broer, G.-U. Flechsig*, Electrochemical detection of 0.6 percent genetically modified maize MON810 in real flour samples, (2012) submitted.

S. Gassmann, H. Götze, M. Hinze, M. Mix, G.-U. Flechsig, L. Pagel, PCB based DNA detection chip, IECON Proc. (2012) art. no. 6389254, pp. 3982-3986

Walter, A.-E. Surkus, G.-U. Flechsig, Hybridization detection of enzyme-labeled DNA at electrically heated electrodes, Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 405 (2013) 3907

M. Jacobsen, G.-U. Flechsig, Hybridization detection of osmium tetroxide bipyridine-labelled DNA and RNA on heated gold wire electrodes, Electroanalysis 25 (2013) 373

Fuel Cells

High-Temperature Electrochemical Characterization of Ru Core Pt Shell Fuel Cell Catalyst
D. Bokach, J. L.G. de la Fuente,M. Tsypkin1, P.Ochal, I. C. Endsjø, R. Tunold, S. Sunde, and F. Seland (2011) FUEL CELLS 11, No. 6, 735-744, abstract: doi: 

Other fundamental and applied studies

A simple method for heating microelectrodes in-situ
Gründler P, Tadesse Zerihun, Möller A, Kirbs A (1993) J Electroanal Chem 360:309-314,

Simultaneous joule heating and potential cycling of cylindrical microelectrodes
Gründler P, Tadesse Zerihun, Kirbs A, Grabow H (1995) Anal Chim Acta 305:232-240,

Electrically heated cylindrical microelectrodes. The reduction of dissolved oxygen on Pt
Tadesse Zerihun, Gründler P (1996) J Electroanal Chem 404:243-248,

Theory and practice of sensors with hot-wire electrodes
Gründler P (1998) Fresenius' J Anal Chem 362:180-183

Oxidation of formaldehyde, methanol, formic acid and glucose at ac heated cylindrical Pt microelectrodes
Tadesse Zerihun, Gründler P (1998) J Electroanal Chem 441:57-63,

The Technology of Hot-wire Electrochemistry
Gründler P, Kirbs A (1999) Electroanalysis 11:223-228,

Electrically heated cylindrical microelectrodes. Electrochemical measurements in THF
Beckmann A, Schneider A, Gründler P (1999) Electrochem Commun 1:46,

Electrochemical behaviour of cytochrome c at electrically heated microelectrodes
Voss T, Gründler P, Brett CMA, Brett AMO (1999) J Pharm Biomed Anal 19:127-133,

Electrically heated cylindrical microelectrodes - Comparison of temperature profiles obtained by IR photography and digital simulation
Schneider A, Flechsig GU, Gründler P (2000) J Electrochem Soc 147:3768-3770,

Phenomena at hot-wire electrodes
Gründler P (2000) Fres J Anal Chem 367: 324-328,

Hot-wire amperometric monitoring of flowing streams
Wang J, Jasinski M, Flechsig GU, Gründler P, Tian, B (2000) Talanta 50:1205,

Modeling hot wire electrochemistry. Coupled heat and mass transport at a directly and continuously heated wire
Beckmann A, Coles BA, Compton RG, Gründler P, Marken F, Neudeck A (2000) J Phys Chem 104:764-769,
DOI: 10.1021/jp992736s

Electrochemical studies of thiol self-assembled monolayers at a heated gold-wire microelectrode
Wang J, Gründler P (2003) Electroanalysis 15:1756-1761,

Hydrodynamics with heated microelectrodes
Gründler P, Beckmann A (2004) Anal Bioanal Chem 379:261-265,

Application of heated electrodes operating in a non-isothermal mode for interference elimination with amperometric biosensors
Lau C, Reiter S, Schuhmann W, Gründler P (2004) Anal Bioanal Chem 379:255-260,

Electrochemistry of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (reduced) at heated platinum electrodes
Lau C, Flechsig GU, Gründler P, Wang J (2005) Anal Chim Acta 554:74-78,
doi:10.1016/10.1007/s00216-004-2585-2 j.aca.2005.08.044

Self-assembled monolayers on bismuth electrodes
Buckova M, Zajac A, Gründler P, Flechsig GU (2006) Electrochem Commun 8:932-936,

Principles and Analytical Applications of Heated Electrodes
Flechsig GU, Gründler P (2006) Microchimica Acta 154: 175-189,

A compact and versatile instrument for radio frequency heating in non-isothermal electrochemical studies
F. Wachholz, J. Gimsa, H. Duwensee, H. Grabow, P. Gründler, G.-U. Flechsig*, Electroanalysis 19 (2007) 535,

Temperature pulse modulated amperometry at compact electrochemical sensors
F. Wachholz, K. Biała, M. Piekarz, G.-U. Flechsig*, Electrochem. Commun. 9 (2007) 2346,

Thermally induced electrode protection against biofouling
H. Duwensee, T. Vázquez-Alvarez, G.-U. Flechsig*, J. Wang*, Talanta 77 (2009) 1757,

Numerically optimized shape of directly heated electrodes for minimal temperature gradients
N. Mahnke, A. Markovic, H. Duwensee, F. Wachholz, G.-U. Flechsig*, U. van Rienen*, Sensors & Actuators B - Chemical 137 (2009) 363,

Thermally Stable Improved First-Generation Glucose Biosensors based on Nafion/Glucose-Oxidase Modified Heated Electrodes
T.-F. Tseng, Y.-L. Yang, M.-C. Chuang, S.-L. Lou, M. Galik, G.-U. Flechsig*, J. Wang*, Electrochem. Commun. 11 (2009) 1819,

High Temperature Potentiometry: Modulated Response of Ion-Selective Electrodes During Heat Pulses
K. Y. Chumbimuni-Torres, C. Thammakhet, M. Galik, P. Calvo-Marzal, J. Wu, E. Bakker, G.-U. Flechsig, J. Wang, Anal. Chem. 81 (2009) 10290

Directly heated bismuth film electrodes based on gold microwires
M. Jacobsen, H. Duwensee, F. Wachholz, M. Adamovski, G.-U. Flechsig*, Electroanalysis 22 (2010) 1483

S.-H. Wu, F.-H. Nie, Q.-Z. Chen, Highly sensitive detection of silybin based on adsorptive stripping analysis at single-sided heated screen-printed carbon electrodes modified with multi-walled carbon nanotubes with direct current heating, Analytica Chimica Acta687 (2011), 43-49

Y. Ruihong, C. Xiaoping, Q. Bin, Electrochemiluminescence Behavior of Ru(bpy)(3)(2+)/Carbofuran System on an Electrically Heated Microelectrode Chip, Chinese Journal of Chemistry 29 (2011), 2148-2152

Moran Horesh, Nina Lidich, Shlomo Yitzchaik, and Yael Hanein, Senior Member, IEEE, A Temperature- Differential Affinity Biosensor: Model and Optimal Performance Limits, IEEE SENSORS JOURNAL, VOL. 11, NO. 9, SEPTEMBER 2011, P. 2007 - 2015,

S.-H Wu, B.-J. Zhu, Z.-X. Huang, A new heated Nickel Oxyhydroxide Covered Nickel Wire Electrode and ist improved Electrocatalytic Oxidation for Methanol, Electroanal. 24 (2012), 1095-1099

S.-H Wu, B.-J. Zhu, Z.-X. Huang, A heated pencil lead disk electrode with direct current and ist preliminary application for highly sensitiv detection of luteolin, Electrochem. Comm. 28 (2012), 47-50

Gensoric Logo